A crusher is a machine used to crush stones in quarry aggregate production, mining operations and construction waste recycling applications. Different applications and materials require different types of crushers. In this article, I will share the different types and uses of stone crushers to help you choose the right crushing equipment for your application.
Types of stone crushers
All stone crushers use two methods to crush materials-compression and impact. A machine that crushes rocks by compression is called a compression crusher, and a machine that uses a rotor to violently hit rocks or minerals and throws it at impact toggles is called an impact crusher.
Common compression crushing equipment
The jaw crusher is the most common compression crusher, mainly used as a primary crusher. Its main function is to crush the material to a small enough size so that it can be conveyed to the next crushing stage (secondary crushing or screening) through a conveyor belt.
Jaw crushers will perform better in moderate to very high compressive strength applications and abrasive applications. It breaks the stone through compression and squeezing, and it is easy to destroy the stable structure of hard rock.
In order to ensure the high-efficiency operation of the jaw crusher, the material should be pre-screened with a vibrating feeder before entering the jaw crusher to remove soil and materials finer than the closed-side setting.
Generally, the gyratory crusher is used in the primary crushing stage of a quarry or mining operation. When the material falls into the crushing cavity, the material is continuously compressed between the mantle on the swing shaft assembly and the bowl liner in the cavity. This laminated crushing method will cause additional crushing effects between the materials, thereby reducing the wear of the liner .
Although the same is the primary crusher, the gyratory crusher has a larger capacity than the jaw crusher.
The cone crusher is similar to the gyratory crusher. The material falls into the crushing cavity and is continuously crushed between the mantle and the bowl liner. But unlike the gyratory crusher, the cone crusher is more used in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary crushing stages to produce fine aggregates.
Sometimes, if the size of the raw material is small enough, the traditional primary crushing stage is not needed, and the cone crusher is directly used as the primary crushing equipment.
Common cone crushers can be divided into spring single-cylinder hydraulic and multi-cylinder hydraulics.
In order to improve the efficiency of the cone crusher, the hopper is set at the center of the inlet of the cone crusher to ensure uniform feeding.
Common impact crushing equipment
Horizontal shaft impact crusher (HSI)
The horizontal shaft impact crusher (HSI) is used in the secondary or tertiary crushing stage, and is usually used for crushing applications where the rock is softer, less dense and less abrasive. The high-speed rotating rotor impacts the stone to break it, and throws the crushed stone into the impact plate for further crushing to produce a smaller size and better shape material.
Vertical shaft impact crusher (VSI)
VSI is usually used in the final stage of the aggregate processing process, mainly for the production of cube-shaped artificial sand. Since the axis of the VSI is vertical, the movement is similar to a centrifugal pump. The material enters the center of the rotor and is fed. The high-speed rotating rotor throws the material out of the opening and hits the wear-resistant block outside the rotor at high speed. The material is crushed due to mutual collision.
How to choose the best stone crusher
Generally, from the characteristics of material hardness, abrasiveness, raw material size, particle size requirements and capacity to decide which type of crusher to choose.
Primary crushing stage
The main purpose of the primary crusher is to crush large pieces of material to a size that allows the use of conveyor belts. In most quarry aggregate processing plants, jaw crushers are used as primary crushers. In mining operations, high-capacity gyratory crushers are often used as primary crushers.
Intermediate crushing stage
In the secondary and tertiary crushing stages, cone crushers or impact crushers are usually used. Cone crushers are usually used for medium and fine crushing of hard materials, such as basalt, granite, marble, iron ore and other hard materials. The impact crusher is mainly used to crush medium-hard or soft materials, such as limestone, calcite, gypsum, etc.
Read Also: Cone Crusher vs Impact Crusher
Fine crushing stage
Usually cone crushers or impact crushers are used as fine crushing equipment. For hard materials or abrasive materials, cone crushers are recommended. For medium-hard materials or nonabrasive materials, an impact crusher is recommended.
Different types of crushers are suitable for different raw materials and crushing stages. Contact our crusher experts to customize material crushing solutions for you.